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Meta-Analysis
, 46 (12), 2036-2042

Early Enteral Nutrition Reduces Mortality and Improves Other Key Outcomes in Patients With Major Burn Injury: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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Meta-Analysis

Early Enteral Nutrition Reduces Mortality and Improves Other Key Outcomes in Patients With Major Burn Injury: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Hong Pu et al. Crit Care Med.

Abstract

Objectives: To identify, appraise, and synthesize current evidence to determine whether early enteral nutrition alters patient outcomes from major burn injury.

Data sources: Medline, Embase, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched. The close out date was May 1, 2018.

Study selection: Early enteral nutrition was defined as a standard formula commenced within 24 hours of injury or admission to ICU or burn unit. Comparators included any form of nutrition support "except" early enteral nutrition. Only randomized controlled trials reporting patient-centered outcomes were eligible for inclusion.

Data extraction: The primary outcome was mortality. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, sepsis, pneumonia, renal failure, and hospital stay were evaluated as secondary outcomes.

Data synthesis: Nine-hundred fifty-eight full-text articles were retrieved and screened. Seven randomized controlled trials enrolling 527 participants with major burn injury were included. Compared with all other types of nutrition support, early enteral nutrition significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.72; p = 0.003; I = 0%). Early enteral nutrition also significantly reduced gastrointestinal hemorrhage (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.51; p = 0.0005; I = 0%), sepsis (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.48; p < 0.0001; I = 0%), pneumonia (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.81; p = 0.01; I = 63%), renal failure (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.82; p = 0.02; I = 32%), and duration of hospital stay (-15.31 d; 95% CI, -20.43 to -10.20; p < 0.00001; I = 0%).

Conclusions: The improvements in clinical outcomes demonstrated in this meta-analysis are consistent with the physiologic rationale cited to support clinical recommendations for early enteral nutrition made by major clinical practice guidelines: gut integrity is preserved leading to fewer gastrointestinal hemorrhages, less infectious complications, a reduction in consequent organ failures, and a reduction in the onset of sepsis. The cumulative benefit of these effects improves patient survival and reduces hospital length of stay.

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