Evaluation of quantitative 123I and 131I SPECT with Monte Carlo-based down-scatter compensation

Nucl Med Commun. 2018 Dec;39(12):1097-1102. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0000000000000920.


Objective: Quantitative I and I single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is hampered by down-scatter from the high-energy peaks. This paper presents a down-scatter compensation method, where down-scatter generated in the patient and gamma camera collimator and detector is modelled using Monte Carlo simulation in the ordered subsets expectation maximization SPECT reconstruction algorithm.

Materials and methods: The new down-scatter compensation method was compared with conventional triple energy window (TEW) scatter compensation and Gaussian convolution-based forced detection Monte Carlo methods. The comparison was made with the NEMA-IEC phantom using six spherical inserts (diameters from 10 to 37 mm) and a lung compartment. The phantom was filled with I and I solutions to known sphere-to-background concentration ratios. Spherical volumes of interest with the same diameter as the inserts were drawn on the images, and recovery coefficients for the spheres were calculated in addition to lung-to-background ratio.

Results: The new down-scatter compensation method provided higher recovery coefficients than the TEW scatter compensation or Gaussian convolution-based forced detection Monte Carlo algorithm for both isotopes. Background activity concentration could be accurately estimated with the new down-scatter compensation method and with the TEW scatter compensation, whereas activity concentration of the spheres was severely underestimated even with the new method.

Conclusion: Down-scatter compensation with Monte Carlo-simulation effectively reduces down-scatter effects in I and I SPECT imaging.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Calibration
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Iodine Radioisotopes*
  • Monte Carlo Method*
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Scattering, Radiation*
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods*


  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Iodine-131
  • Iodine-123