Three-dimensional Analysis and Evaluation in Orthognathic Surgical Cases with Facial Asymmetry

Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2018;59(3):147-161. doi: 10.2209/tdcpublication.2017-0008.


Two-dimensional cephalometric analysis is commonly used in planning and evaluating the outcome of orthognathic surgery. It is difficult to arrive at an accurate evaluation with this method, however, as the jaw bones overlap in profile. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3-D) orthognathic treatment planning software for measurement of distances and angles to evaluate change in dentofacial morphology and stability after orthognathic surgery in patients with jaw deformity and facial asymmetry. Computed tomography with SimPlant O&O® (Materialize Dental, Belgium) was used to obtain data at before surgery (T1) and at 1 month (T2) and 1-2 years postoperatively (T3). Reference points, reference planes, and evaluation items were set to measure angles and distances. The average values at T1, T2, and T3 and the standard deviations were obtained. The analyses of change in distance and angle between T1 and T2 in both the maxilla and mandible revealed that the amount of postoperative deviation and change was greatest in the mandible (p<0.05). These findings showed a correlation between postoperative change in position of the chin and symmetry. Only a minimal amount of change was observed between T2 and T3 in both the maxilla and mandible. The results also revealed a correlation between positional change in both the proximal and distal bone segments and stability. It was found to be possible to determine change in horizontal, vertical, and anterior/posterior angle in both the maxilla and mandible by such 3-D analysis. The results suggest that the chin is the most appropriate facial element for evaluation of symmetry after orthognathic surgery.

Keywords: Computed tomography; Orthognathic surgery; Postoperative evaluation; Skeletal class III; Three-dimensional analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cephalometry / methods*
  • Facial Asymmetry / diagnostic imaging*
  • Facial Asymmetry / surgery
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Male
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class III / diagnostic imaging*
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class III / surgery
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures*
  • Osteotomy
  • Preoperative Care
  • Software
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Young Adult