Influenza Transmission Dynamics in Urban Households, Managua, Nicaragua, 2012-2014

Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Oct;24(10):1882-1888. doi: 10.3201/eid2410.161258.


During August 2012-November 2014, we conducted a case ascertainment study to investigate household transmission of influenza virus in Managua, Nicaragua. We collected up to 5 respiratory swab samples from each of 536 household contacts of 133 influenza virus-infected persons and assessed for evidence of influenza virus transmission. The overall risk for influenza virus infection of household contacts was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.0%). Oseltamivir treatment of index patients did not appear to reduce household transmission. The mean serial interval for within-household transmission was 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-8.4) days. We found the transmissibility of influenza B virus to be higher than that of influenza A virus among children. Compared with households with <4 household contacts, those with >4 household contacts appeared to have a reduced risk for infection. Further research is needed to model household influenza virus transmission and design interventions for these settings.

Keywords: H1N1; H3N2; Managua; Nicaragua; age; household; household contacts; household transmission; influenza; influenza A; influenza B; oseltamivir; respiratory infections; risk for infection; serial interval; transmission; vaccination; viruses.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Family Characteristics*
  • Female
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza A virus / classification
  • Influenza A virus / genetics
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology*
  • Influenza, Human / history
  • Influenza, Human / transmission*
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Male
  • Nicaragua / epidemiology
  • Population Surveillance
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Urban Health*