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Review
. 2019 Apr 24;30(3):305-315.
doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2018-0015.

Vision Impairment After Traumatic Brain Injury: Present Knowledge and Future Directions

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Review

Vision Impairment After Traumatic Brain Injury: Present Knowledge and Future Directions

Mahasweta Das et al. Rev Neurosci. .

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the USA as well as in the world. As a result of TBI, the visual system is also affected often causing complete or partial visual loss, which in turn affects the quality of life. It may also lead to ocular motor dysfunction, defective accommodation, and impaired visual perception. As a part of the therapeutic strategy, early rehabilitative optometric intervention is important. Orthoptic therapy, medication, stem cell therapy, motor and attention trainings are the available treatment options. Gene therapy is one of the most promising emerging strategies. Use of state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches to deliver drug(s) and/or gene(s) might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the present and future modalities. More research is needed in these fields to improve the outcome of this debilitating condition. This review focuses on different visual pathologies caused by TBI, advances in pre-clinical and clinical research, and available treatment options.

Keywords: gene therapy; nanomedicine; optic nerve; optic neuropathy; retina; traumatic brain injury (TBI); visual impairment.

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