Background: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is an emerging treatment option for oligometastatic prostate cancer. However, limited prospective evidence is available.
Objective: To determine the safety and feasibility of single fraction SABR for patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer. Secondary endpoints were local and distant progression-free survival (LPFS and DPFS), toxicity, quality of life (QoL), and prostate-specific antigen response.
Design, setting, and participants: In a prospective clinical trial, patients were screened with computed tomography, bone scan, and sodium fluoride positron emission tomography scan and had one to three oligometastases. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine LPFS and DPFS. Toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event version 4.0. QoL was assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BM22 at 1, 3,12, and 24 mo.
Intervention: A single fraction of 20-Gy SABR to each lesion.
Results and limitations: Between 2013 and 2014, 33 consecutive patients received SABR to a total of 50 oligometastases and were followed for 2 yr. The median age was 70 yr. The Gleason score was ≥8 in 15 patients (45%). Twenty patients had bone only, 12 had node only, and one had mixed disease. SABR was feasible and delivered as planned in 97% of cases. There was one grade 3 adverse event (3.0%, vertebral fracture). No patient died. The 1 and 2-yr LPFS was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91-100) and 93% (95% CI: 84-100), and DPFS was 58% (95% CI: 43-77) and 39% (95% CI: 25-60), respectively. In those not on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; n=22), the 2-yr freedom from ADT was 48%. There was no significant difference from baseline QoL observed. Limitations include small sample size, limited duration of follow-up, and lack of a control arm.
Conclusions: A single SABR session was feasible and associated with low morbidity in this cohort. Over one-third of patients did not progress and were free from ADT at 2-yr. QoL measures were maintained with this treatment strategy.
Patient summary: This clinical trial investigated single treatment stereotactic radiotherapy for low volume advanced prostate cancer. The approach was found to be safe with avoidance of hormone therapy in almost half of the participants at 2 yr.
Keywords: Clinical trial; Metastasis directed therapy; Oligometastases; POPSTAR; Positron emission tomography; Prostate cancer; Quality of life; SABR; SBRT; Single fraction.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.