Aim: Complete or partial resistance to prednisone and calcineurin inhibitors in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome often leads to end-stage renal disease. The aim of the study was to report the outcome of patients with multidrug-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with an association of immunoglobulin immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulins and B-cell depletion.
Methods: At treatment initiation, patients received ten sessions of immunoglobulin immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulins in two weeks followed by one rituximab in case of remission.
Results: A remission of proteinuria was obtained in nine out of 14 patients at the end of the initial phase and in two additional patients after an extended period. The remission was stable in three patients and after additional IgIA and heavy immunosuppression in six. Two patients that initially responded relapsed after IgIA withdrawal and remained with an uncontrolled disease at last follow-up. Three patients did not respond to the treatment including two who were found to have a genetic podocytopathy.
Conclusion: Patients with multidrug-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can be successfully led into remission by IgIA prior to reaching end-stage renal disease. However, IgIA does not suppress the need for heavy additional immunosuppression to control INS in most cases.
Keywords: Antibody; B cell; Intravenous immunoglobulin G; Proteinuria; Rituximab.
©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.