Incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) increases worldwide with varying etiological factors. In addition to the control of risk factors, dietary modification has been recommended to reduce the prevalence. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of fish oil are beneficial for the prevention of CHD. The effect can be ascribed to anti-inflammatory, vasodilating, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive activities and lowering of triacyl glycerol level. The American Heart Association advises two fish meals per week in subjects without CHD or supplementation of 1 g of EPA plus DHA per day in subjects with CHD. Despite the beneficial effects of EPA/DHA reported in some of the clinical trials, results of many others were inconsistent that can be ascribed to short duration of studies, low doses of ω-3 FAs, variations in the EPA:DHA ratio, selection of patients with different risk factors or interaction of ω-3 FAs with drugs used in the therapy. Therefore, well designed clinical trials in various populations are warranted. This article discusses the current situation and future prospective of ω-3 FAs in CHD.
Keywords: coronary heart disease; cyclooxygenase; lipoxygenase; myocardial infarction; omega-3 fatty acids.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.