The widespread adoption and diffusion of social media provides oncology professionals with a unique and unprecedented opportunity to engage with the public. However, there remains a paucity of literature examining how clinicians and researchers can effectively use social media to complement modern oncology practice and research. In this review, we dissect the benefits and risks of professional social media use in oncology and offer several best practices for clinicians and researchers to achieve effective engagement. We also describe how to participate constructively in Twitter conversations at the time of medical or scientific conferences. Additionally, we demonstrate how to communicate appropriately and safely with patients and families online. Finally, we explore the exciting and nascent field of social media research and highlight the need to investigate its potential value in personalized cancer medicine.