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Review
. 2018 May 23;38:751-758.
doi: 10.1200/EDBK_199047.

Emerging Strategies in Systemic Therapy for the Treatment of Melanoma

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Free article
Review

Emerging Strategies in Systemic Therapy for the Treatment of Melanoma

Paolo A Ascierto et al. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. .
Free article

Abstract

Recent years have seen major improvements in survival of patients with advanced melanoma with the advent of various novel systemic immunotherapies and targeted therapies. As our understanding of these agents and their various mechanisms of action improves, even more impressive outcomes are being achieved through use of various combination strategies, including the combining of different immunotherapies with one another as well as with other modalities. However, despite the improved outcomes that have been achieved in advanced melanoma, responses to treatment are heterogeneous and may not always be durable. Additional advances in therapy are required, and several emerging strategies are a focus of interest. These include the investigation of several new immunotherapy and/or targeted therapy combinations, such as checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4) with other immunotherapies (e.g., indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase [IDO] inhibitors, antilymphocyte activation 3 [anti-LAG-3], histone deacetylase [HDAC] inhibitors, Toll-like receptor 9 [TLR-9] agonists, antiglucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor [anti-GITR], pegylated interleukin-2 [IL-2]), combined targeted therapies (e.g., MEK and CDK4/6 coinhibition), and combined immunotherapy and targeted therapy (e.g., the triplet combination of BRAF/MEK inhibition with anti-PD-1s). The identification of novel therapeutic targets in the MAP kinase pathway also offers opportunities to improve outcomes by overcoming de novo and acquired resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibition (e.g., the development of ERK inhibitors). In addition, adoptive cell transfer, the infusion of large numbers of activated autologous lymphocytes, may have a potential role in patients whose disease has progressed after immunotherapy. Taken together, these new approaches offer further potential to increase systemic treatment options and improve long-term outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma.

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