Phenolic Compounds in Organic and Aqueous Extracts from Acacia farnesiana Pods Analyzed by ULPS-ESI-Q-oa/TOF-MS. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Inflammatory Response in CD-1 Mice

Molecules. 2018 Sep 18;23(9):2386. doi: 10.3390/molecules23092386.


Background: Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods have been traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, diarrhea and topically for dermal inflammation. Main objectives: (1) investigate the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of six extracts from AF pods and (2) their capacity to curb the inflammation process as well as to down-regulate the pro-inflammatory mediators.

Methods: Five organic extracts (chloroformic, hexanic, ketonic, methanolic, methanolic:aqueous and one aqueous extract) were obtained and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-Q-oa/TOF-MS. Antioxidant activity (DPPH•, ORAC and FRAP assays) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) were performed. Assessment of anti-inflammatory properties was made by the ear edema induced model in CD-1 mice and MPO activity assay. Likewise, histological analysis, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, COX measurements plus nitrite and immunohistochemistry analysis were carried out.

Results: Methyl gallate, gallic acid, galloyl glucose isomer 1, galloyl glucose isomer 2, galloyl glucose isomer 3, digalloyl glucose isomer 1, digalloyl glucose isomer 2, digalloyl glucose isomer 3, digalloyl glucose isomer 4, hydroxytyrosol acetate, quinic acid, and caffeoylmalic acid were identified. Both organic and aqueous extracts displayed antioxidant activity. All extracts exhibited a positive effect on the interleukins, COX and immunohistochemistry assays.

Conclusion: All AF pod extracts can be effective as antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory agents.

Keywords: Acacia farnesiana pods; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; bioactive compounds; polyphenols.

MeSH terms

  • Acacia / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Edema / drug therapy
  • Edema / pathology
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Phenols / chemistry*
  • Phenols / isolation & purification*
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Polyphenols / chemistry
  • Polyphenols / isolation & purification
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Nitrites
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases