Background: Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods have been traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, diarrhea and topically for dermal inflammation. Main objectives: (1) investigate the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of six extracts from AF pods and (2) their capacity to curb the inflammation process as well as to down-regulate the pro-inflammatory mediators.
Methods: Five organic extracts (chloroformic, hexanic, ketonic, methanolic, methanolic:aqueous and one aqueous extract) were obtained and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-Q-oa/TOF-MS. Antioxidant activity (DPPH•, ORAC and FRAP assays) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) were performed. Assessment of anti-inflammatory properties was made by the ear edema induced model in CD-1 mice and MPO activity assay. Likewise, histological analysis, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, COX measurements plus nitrite and immunohistochemistry analysis were carried out.
Results: Methyl gallate, gallic acid, galloyl glucose isomer 1, galloyl glucose isomer 2, galloyl glucose isomer 3, digalloyl glucose isomer 1, digalloyl glucose isomer 2, digalloyl glucose isomer 3, digalloyl glucose isomer 4, hydroxytyrosol acetate, quinic acid, and caffeoylmalic acid were identified. Both organic and aqueous extracts displayed antioxidant activity. All extracts exhibited a positive effect on the interleukins, COX and immunohistochemistry assays.
Conclusion: All AF pod extracts can be effective as antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory agents.
Keywords: Acacia farnesiana pods; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; bioactive compounds; polyphenols.