Atrial fibrillation (AF) can present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The incidence, characteristics, outcomes, and treatment of this subgroup of patients with AF remains poorly studied. Using data from the National Inpatient Sample database, we (1) compared baseline characteristics of patients with AF with/without NSTEMI, (2) evaluated their outcomes and associated trends over the study period (2004-2013), and (3) evaluated revascularization (by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]) and the impact on patient outcomes. Of the 3 923 436 patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of AF, 47 785 (1.2%) had a secondary diagnosis of NSTEMI. In this subgroup with AF and NSTEMI, there was a significant trend toward a decrease in mortality ( P = .002), stroke ( P < .001), and gastrointestinal bleeding ( P < .001) during the study period. Compared to unrevascularized patients, revascularized patients were more likely to be younger (72.2 ± 10.2 vs 77.0 ± 11.8 years old, P < .001), male (57.8 vs 42.7%, P < .001), and had a much higher incidence of coronary risk factors. Revascularization was associated with increased survival in multivariable analysis (odds ratio: 0.562, 95% confidence interval: 0.334-0.946, P = .03). In conclusion, among patients admitted with AF, 1.2% were diagnosed with NSTEMI. A minority of patients with AF and NSTEMI underwent revascularization and had better in-hospital outcomes.
Keywords: atrial fibrillation; non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; revascularization.