Purpose: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that may develop de novo or as a mechanism of treatment resistance. N-myc is capable of driving NEPC progression. Alisertib inhibits the interaction between N-myc and its stabilizing factor Aurora-A, inhibiting N-myc signaling, and suppressing tumor growth.
Patients and methods: Sixty men were treated with alisertib 50 mg twice daily for 7 days every 21 days. Eligibility included metastatic prostate cancer and at least one: small-cell neuroendocrine morphology; ≥50% neuroendocrine marker expression; new liver metastases without PSA progression; or elevated serum neuroendocrine markers. The primary endpoint was 6-month radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS). Pretreatment biopsies were evaluated by whole exome and RNA-seq and patient-derived organoids were developed.
Results: Median PSA was 1.13 ng/mL (0.01-514.2), number of prior therapies was 3, and 68% had visceral metastases. Genomic alterations involved RB1 (55%), TP53 (46%), PTEN (29%), BRCA2 (29%), and AR (27%), and there was a range of androgen receptor signaling and NEPC marker expression. Six-month rPFS was 13.4% and median overall survival was 9.5 months (7.3-13). Exceptional responders were identified, including complete resolution of liver metastases and prolonged stable disease, with tumors suggestive of N-myc and Aurora-A overactivity. Patient organoids exhibited concordant responses to alisertib and allowed for the dynamic testing of Aurora-N-myc complex disruption.
Conclusions: Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint, a subset of patients with advanced prostate cancer and molecular features supporting Aurora-A and N-myc activation achieved significant clinical benefit from single-agent alisertib.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01799278.
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.