Sleep Quality and Its Associated Factors among Low-Income Adults in a Rural Area of China: A Population-Based Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Sep 19;15(9):2055. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15092055.


Background: There is limited population-based research focusing on sleep quality among low-income Chinese adults in rural areas. This study aimed to assess sleep quality among low-income adults in a rural area in China and identify the association between sleep quality and sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related factors.

Methods: The study was conducted from September to November in 2017 using a cross-sectional survey questionnaire. A total of 6905 participants were recruited via multistage, stratified cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Chinese versions of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Food Frequency Questionnaire, while we also determined the sociodemographic profiles of the participants.

Results: The mean age of the sample was 58.71 ± 14.50 years, with 59.7% being male, while the mean duration of daily sleep was 5.95 ± 1.31 h, with 56.7% reportedly experiencing poor sleep quality. Multiple regression analysis revealed that older age, unemployment, lower income, disability and chronic disease comorbidities were significant factors associated with an increased risk of poor sleep quality for both genders. Moreover, married and higher education level were associated with decreased risk of poor sleep quality for females, while a meat-heavy diet and illness during the past two weeks increased the risk of poor sleep quality for males.

Conclusions: Sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related factors had an impact on the frequently poor sleep quality of low-income Chinese adults in rural areas. Thus, comprehensive measures must be developed to address the modifiable predictive factors that can possibly enhance sleep quality.

Keywords: China; low-income; rural area; sleep quality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • China / epidemiology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Poverty / psychology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sleep*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires