The potential phytochemical losses occurring throughout the sequential steps of in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation of a rosemary aqueous extract were investigated. Crude (CE), digested (DE) and fermented (FE) extracts were characterized in terms of their phenolic profile and biological activities. Rosmarinic acid was the phytochemical that underwent the most significate transformation during digestion and fermentation, which amounted to 60% compared to the 26% degradation of the total phenolics. Overall, the simulated digestion step decreased the antioxidant activity estimated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and TBARS assays. Both CE and DE did not present antiproliferative potential, however, FE exhibited a pronounced cytotoxic activity (GI50 = 116 µg/mL) against HeLa cells. CE and DE showed to be moderate inhibitors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, whilst the FE acted as a moderate inhibitor of MRSA and MSSA.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Antiproliferative potential; Bactericidal effect; Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide (PubChem CID: 40490600); Phytochemicals stability; Rosmarinic acid (PubChem CID: 5281792); Rosmarinic acid-enriched extracts; Sagerinic acid (PubChem CID: 23760102); Yunnaneic Acid F (PubChem CID: 10651175).
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