Recovery of Kidney Function in Children Treated With Maintenance Dialysis

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Oct 8;13(10):1510-1516. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01500218. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Data on recovery of kidney function in pediatric patients with presumed ESKD are scarce. We examined the occurrence of recovery of kidney function and its determinants in a large cohort of pediatric patients on maintenance dialysis in Europe.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Data for 6574 patients from 36 European countries commencing dialysis at an age below 15 years, between 1990 and 2014 were extracted from the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry. Recovery of kidney function was defined as discontinuation of dialysis for at least 30 days. Time to recovery was studied using a cumulative incidence competing risk approach and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Two years after dialysis initiation, 130 patients (2%) experienced recovery of their kidney function after a median of 5.0 (interquartile range, 2.0-9.6) months on dialysis. Compared with patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, recovery more often occurred in patients with vasculitis (11% at 2 years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 20.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 9.7 to 42.8), ischemic kidney failure (12%; adjusted HR, 11.4; 95% CI, 5.6 to 23.1), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (13%; adjusted HR, 15.6; 95% CI, 8.9 to 27.3). Younger age and initiation on hemodialysis instead of peritoneal dialysis were also associated with recovery. For 42 patients (32%), recovery was transient as they returned to kidney replacement therapy after a median recovery period of 19.7 (interquartile range, 9.0-41.3) months.

Conclusions: We demonstrate a recovery rate of 2% within 2 years after dialysis initiation in a large cohort of pediatric patients on maintenance dialysis. There is a clinically important chance of recovery in patients on dialysis with vasculitis, ischemic kidney failure, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which should be considered when planning kidney transplantation in these children.

Keywords: Cohort Studies; ESRD; Edetic Acid; Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome; Incidence; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Proportional Hazards Models; Registries; Renal Insufficiency; chronic dialysis; kidney; kidney transplantation; pediatric nephrology; peritoneal dialysis; renal dialysis; renal function recovery; vasculitis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Kidney / physiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / therapy*
  • Male
  • Recovery of Function*
  • Registries
  • Renal Dialysis*