Genome-wide association analysis of common genetic variants of resistant hypertension

Pharmacogenomics J. 2019 Jun;19(3):295-304. doi: 10.1038/s41397-018-0049-x. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Abstract

Resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140/90 using three or more drugs or controlled BP (<140/90) using four or more drugs, is associated with adverse outcomes, including decline in kidney function. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis in 1194 White and Hispanic participants with hypertension and coronary artery disease from the INternational VErapamil-SR Trandolapril STudy-GENEtic Substudy (INVEST-GENES). Top variants associated with RHTN at p < 10-4 were tested for replication in 585 White and Hispanic participants with hypertension and subcortical strokes from the Secondary Prevention of Subcortical Strokes GENEtic Substudy (SPS3-GENES). A genetic risk score for RHTN was created by summing the risk alleles of replicated RHTN signals. rs11749255 in MSX2 was associated with RHTN in INVEST (odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 1.50 (1.2-1.8), p = 7.3 × 10-5) and replicated in SPS3 (OR = 2.0 (1.4-2.8), p = 4.3 × 10-5), with genome-wide significance in meta-analysis (OR = 1.60 (1.3-1.9), p = 3.8 × 10-8). Other replicated signals were in IFLTD1 and PTPRD. IFLTD1 rs6487504 was associated with RHTN in INVEST (OR = 1.90 (1.4-2.5), p = 1.1 × 10-5) and SPS3 (OR = 1.70 (1.2-2.5), p = 4 × 10-3). PTPRD rs324498, a previously reported RHTN signal, was among the top signals in INVEST (OR = 1.60 (1.3-2.0), p = 3.4 × 10-5) and replicated in SPS3 (OR = 1.60 (1.1-2.4), one-sided p = 0.005). Participants with the highest number of risk alleles were at increased risk of RHTN compared to participants with a lower number (p-trend = 1.8 × 10-15). Overall, we identified and replicated associations with RHTN in the MSX2, IFLTD1, and PTPRD regions, and combined these associations to create a genetic risk score.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Blood Pressure / genetics
  • Female
  • Genome-Wide Association Study / methods
  • Hispanic or Latino / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Risk Factors
  • Verapamil / therapeutic use
  • Whites / genetics

Substances

  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Verapamil