Purpose: A major challenge to developing new therapies for patients with malignant brain tumors is that relatively few small molecule anticancer drugs penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) well enough to provide therapeutically effective concentrations in brain tissue before drug exposure in non-CNS tissues results in unacceptable toxicity.
Methods: KX2-361, a member of a novel family of compounds with Src-kinase and tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, demonstrates good oral bioavailability and readily crosses the BBB in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of KX2-361 against human and murine glioma cells and assess its therapeutic effect in a syngeneic orthotopic model of glioblastoma.
Results: In addition to reducing the level of Src autophosphorylation in the GL261 murine glioblastoma cell line, KX2-361 binds directly to tubulin and disrupts microtubule architecture in glioma cells maintained in culture.
Conclusions: The drug is active in vivo against orthotopic GL261 gliomas in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Long term survival is not observed in mice lacking an adaptive immune system, indicating that KX2-361 works in concert with the host immune system to control tumor growth and promote long-term survival in the GL261 glioma model.
Keywords: Blood–brain barrier; Glioblastoma; KX2-361; Src; Temozolomide; Tubulin.