Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have adopted the use of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a cell delivery device and bioactive regenerative agent. To this end, many ECMs have been investigated for cardiac tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications with variable success. Many sources of natural ECMs have been tested for cardiac applications. Typically, natural ECMs have been made from decellularized organs or tissues and processed into either sheets or injectable hydrogels. This chapter will review natural sources of ECM materials that have been tested as therapeutic agents in models of heart failure.
Keywords: Acellular; Biomaterial; Extracellular matrix; Hydrogel; Myocardium; Pericardium; Regenerative medicine; Scaffolds; Small intestine submucosa; Urinary bladder matrix.