Influence of Eugenia uniflora Extract on Adhesion to Human Buccal Epithelial Cells, Biofilm Formation, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Candida spp. from the Oral Cavity of Kidney Transplant Recipients

Molecules. 2018 Sep 20;23(10):2418. doi: 10.3390/molecules23102418.


This study evaluated the influence of the extract of Eugenia uniflora in adhesion to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) biofilm formation and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of kidney transplant patients. To evaluate virulence attributes in vitro, nine yeasts were grown in the presence and absence of 1000 μg/mL of the extract. Adhesion was quantified using the number of Candida cells adhered to 150 HBEC determined by optical microscope. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT (2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and crystal violet assay, and further analyzed by electronic scan microscopy. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test. We could detect that the extract of E. uniflora was able to reduce adhesion to HBEC and CSH for both Candida albicans and non-Candida albicansCandida species. We also observed a statistically significant reduced ability to form biofilms in biofilm-producing strains using both methods of quantification. However, two highly biofilm-producing strains of Candida tropicalis had a very large reduction in biofilm formation. This study reinforces the idea that besides growth inhibition, E. uniflora may interfere with the expression of some virulence factors of Candida spp. and may be possibly applied in the future as a novel antifungal agent.

Keywords: Candida spp.; Eugenia uniflora; kidney transplant recipients; oral candidiasis; virulence factors.

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / chemistry
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects
  • Candida albicans / drug effects*
  • Candida albicans / pathogenicity
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Extracts / chemistry*
  • Cell Extracts / pharmacology
  • Epithelial Cells / chemistry
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Eugenia / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions / drug effects
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Mouth / drug effects
  • Mouth Mucosa / chemistry
  • Surface Properties / drug effects
  • Virulence Factors / chemistry


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Cell Extracts
  • Virulence Factors