Characterizing Epigenetic Changes in Endothelial Cells

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1846:335-344. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8712-2_23.


Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an antibody-based method used to identify protein-DNA interactions and sites of protein modifications to chromatin in living cells. ChIP is a powerful method for identifying genomic sites at which epigenetic changes occur in cell types of interest because many antibodies have been developed that recognize specific epigenetic modifications of histone tails. This chapter provides detailed ChIP and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-PCR) protocols for use in cultured endothelial cells. These protocols will allow investigators to make consistent and quantitative discoveries about epigenetic changes that occur in endothelial cells at specific genomic sites under varying treatment conditions.

Keywords: Chemical cross-linking; Chromatin fragmentation; Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP); DNA elements; Histone tail modifications; Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Chromatin