Thrombogenicity assessment of Pipeline Flex, Pipeline Shield, and FRED flow diverters in an in vitro human blood physiological flow loop model

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2018 Dec;106(12):3195-3202. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36514. Epub 2018 Sep 22.


Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with endoluminal flow diverters (single or multiple) has proven to be clinically safe and effective, but is associated with a risk of thromboembolic complications. Recently, a novel biomimetic surface modification with covalently bound phosphorylcholine (Shield Technology™) has shown to reduce the material thrombogenicity of the Pipeline flow diverter. Thrombogenicity of Pipeline Flex, Pipeline Shield, and Flow Redirection Endoluminal Device (FRED) in the presence of human blood under physiological flow conditions-in addition to relative increase in thrombogenicity with multiple devices-remains unknown and was investigated here. Thrombin generation (mean ± SD; μg/mL; thrombin-antithrombin complex or TAT) was measured as FRED (30.3 ± 2.9), Pipeline (13.9 ± 4.4), Pipeline Shield (0.4 ± 0.3), and negative control (no device; 0.1 ± 0.0). Platelet activation (mean ± SD; IU/μL; beta-thromboglobulin or βTG) was measured as FRED (148 ± 45), Pipeline (92.8 ± 41), Pipeline Shield (16.2 ± 3.5), and negative control (2.70 ± 0.16). FRED was significantly more thrombogenic than Pipeline and Pipeline Shield (p < 0.05) for TAT. Additionally, Pipeline Shield had significantly lower TAT and βTG than the other devices tested (p < 0.05) and these were comparable to the negative control (p > 0.05). TAT and βTG scaled proportionately with multiple Pipeline devices (N = 6) but was unaffected by multiple Pipeline Shield (N = 6) devices-the latter being statistically similar to negative control (p > 0.05). © 2018 The Authors. Journal Of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published By Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 3195-3202, 2018.

Keywords: flow diversion; intracranial aneurysm; phosphorylcholine; surface modification; thrombosis.

MeSH terms

  • Embolization, Therapeutic / adverse effects*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / instrumentation
  • Equipment Design
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / therapy
  • Platelet Activation
  • Thrombosis / etiology*