Therapeutic potentials of ginger for treatment of Multiple sclerosis: A review with emphasis on its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties

J Neuroimmunol. 2018 Nov 15:324:54-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.09.003. Epub 2018 Sep 12.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by chronic inflammatory response-induced demyelination of the neurons and degeneration of the axons within the central nervous system (CNS). A complex network of immunopathological-, inflammatory- and oxidative parameters involve in the development and advancement of MS. The anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidative characteristics of the ginger and several of its components have been indicated in some of experimental and clinical investigations. The possible therapeutic potentials of ginger and its ingredients in the treatment of MS may exert mainly through the regulation of the Th1-, Th2-, Th9-, Th17-, Th22- and Treg cell-related immune responses, down-regulation of the B cell-related immune responses, modulation of the macrophages-related responses, modulation of the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, down-regulation of the arachidonic acid-derived mediators, interfering with the toll like receptor-related signaling pathways, suppression of the inflammasomes, down-regulation of the oxidative stress, reduction of the adhesion molecules expression, and down-regulation of the expression of the chemokines and chemokine receptors. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive knowledge regarding the immunomodulatory-, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of ginger and its components, and highlight novel insights into the possible therapeutic potentials of this plant for treatment of MS. The review encourages more investigations to consider the therapeutic potentials of ginger and its effective components for managing of MS.

Keywords: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Ginger; Multiple sclerosis; Therapeutic potentials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / isolation & purification
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / immunology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Zingiber officinale*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Plant Extracts