Influence of Nonpolio Enteroviruses and the Bacterial Gut Microbiota on Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Response: A Study from South India

J Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 8;219(8):1178-1186. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy568.


Background: Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is less immunogenic in low- or middle-income than in high-income countries. We tested whether bacterial and viral components of the intestinal microbiota are associated with this phenomenon.

Methods: We assessed the prevalence of enteropathogens using TaqMan array cards 14 days before and at vaccination in 704 Indian infants (aged 6-11 months) receiving monovalent type 3 OPV (CTRI/2014/05/004588). Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes were identified by means of VP1 sequencing. In 120 infants, the prevaccination bacterial microbiota was characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.

Results: We detected 56 NPEV serotypes on the day of vaccination. Concurrent NPEVs were associated with a reduction in OPV seroconversion, consistent across species (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.57 [.36-.90], 0.61 [.43-.86], and 0.69 [.41-1.16] for species A, B, and C, respectively). Recently acquired enterovirus infections, detected at vaccination but not 14 days earlier, had a greater interfering effect on monovalent type 3 OPV seroresponse than did persistent infections, with enterovirus detected at both time points (seroconversion in 44 of 127 infants [35%] vs 63 of 129 [49%]; P = .02). The abundance of specific bacterial taxa did not differ significantly according to OPV response, although the microbiota was more diverse in nonresponders at the time of vaccination.

Conclusion: Enteric viruses have a greater impact on OPV response than the bacterial microbiota, with recent enterovirus infections having a greater inhibitory effect than persistent infections.

Keywords: 16S rRNA; Nonpolio enteroviruses; OPV; bacterial microbiota; next generation sequencing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Enterovirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Enterovirus Infections / immunology
  • Enterovirus* / genetics
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome* / genetics
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • Intestines / virology*
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral / immunology
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral / pharmacology*
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Seroconversion*


  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S