Protein kinase C beta deficiency increases glucose-mediated peritoneal damage via M1 macrophage polarization and up-regulation of mesothelial protein kinase C alpha

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019 Jun 1;34(6):947-960. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy282.


Background: Peritoneal membrane (PM) damage during peritoneal dialysis (PD) is mediated largely by high glucose (HG)-induced pro-inflammatory and neo-angiogenic processes, resulting in PM fibrosis and ultrafiltration failure. We recently demonstrated a crucial role for protein kinase C (PKC) isoform α in mesothelial cells.

Methods: In this study we investigate the role of PKCβ in PM damage in vitro using primary mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMΦ), human macrophages (HMΦ) and immortalized mouse peritoneal mesothelial cells (MPMCs), as well as in vivo using a chronic PD mouse model.

Results: We demonstrate that PKCβ is the predominant classical PKC isoform expressed in primary MPMΦ and its expression is up-regulated in vitro under HG conditions. After in vitro lipopolysaccharides stimulation PKCβ-/- MPMΦ demonstrates increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and drastically decrease IL-10 release compared with wild-type (WT) cells. In vivo, catheter-delivered treatment with HG PD fluid for 5 weeks induces PKCβ up-regulation in omentum of WT mice and results in inflammatory response and PM damage characterized by fibrosis and neo-angiogenesis. In comparison to WT mice, all pathological changes are strongly aggravated in PKCβ-/- animals. Underlying molecular mechanisms involve a pro-inflammatory M1 polarization shift of MPMΦ and up-regulation of PKCα in MPMCs of PKCβ-/- mice. Finally, we demonstrate PKCβ involvement in HG-induced polarization processes in HMΦ.

Conclusions: PKCβ as the dominant PKC isoform in MPMΦ is up-regulated by HG PD fluid and exerts anti-inflammatory effects during PD through regulation of MPMΦ M1/M2 polarization and control of the dominant mesothelial PKC isoform α.

Keywords: fibrosis; inflammation; macrophage polarization; peritoneal dialysis; protein kinase C.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chemokine CCL2 / metabolism
  • Dialysis Solutions / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Epithelium
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Omentum / metabolism
  • Peritoneal Dialysis / adverse effects*
  • Peritoneal Fibrosis / metabolism
  • Peritoneum / metabolism
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Protein Kinase C beta / deficiency*
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • PRKCB protein, human
  • Prkcb protein, mouse
  • Protein Kinase C beta
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha
  • Glucose