Combined use of live-attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines to enhance heterosubtypic protection

Virology. 2018 Dec;525:73-82. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.09.007. Epub 2018 Sep 21.


The limited protection of current commerical vaccines necessitates the investigation of novel vaccine strategies for unpredictable outbreaks. To investigate the feasibility of using vaccines derived from Group 1 influenza A virus to induce broadly cross-reactive immune responses against multiple influenza subtypes, we tested a panel of sequential 4-dose immunization regimens in mice. Mice were treated with inactivated (seasonal H1N1, pandemic H1N1 and H5N1) and vaccinia virus-based H5N1 live-attenuated vaccines in different combinations. Mice were then challenged by viruses of either Group 1 (H1N1) or Group 2 (H3N2, H7N7) influenza virus. All studied sequential 4-dose vaccinations could induce some degrees of heterosubtypic protection in mice. Amongst all these regimens, the combined use of inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines could achieve the best heterologous protection. These results highlight the synergistic effect of combining different vaccine platforms to enhance heterosubtypic protection against influenza viruses.

Keywords: Heterosubtypic immunity; Influenza; Universal vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Female
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated