Filariasis is caused by thread-like nematode worms and is classified according to their presence in the vertebrate host. The lymphatic group includes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, has been one of the most prevalent diseases in tropical and subtropical countries and is accompanied by a number of pathological conditions. It is estimated that currently (after 13 years of the MDA programme) there are an estimated 67.88 million LF cases that include 36.45 million microfilaria carriers, 19.43 million hydrocele cases, and 16.68 million lymphedema cases. Adult filarial worms reside in the lymphatics and lymph nodes and induce changes that result in dilatation of lymphatics and thickening of the lymphatic vessel walls. Progressive lymphatic damage and pathology results from the summation of the effect of tissue alterations induced by both living and nonliving adult parasites. In recent years, there has been rapid progress in filariasis research, which has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of filarial disease, diagnosis, chemotherapy, the host-parasite relationship, and the genomics of the parasite. We examined the clinical manifestations of the disease, diagnosis, treatment, immune responses, and management including review of pharmaceutical agents against filariasis. Details on infection, safety profile, and status in clinical practices are also reported.
Keywords: clinical management; lymphatic filariasis; lymphedema; surgical intervention in lymphatic filariasis lymphedema.
Copyright by International Society of Lymphology.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors of this article and the planning committee members and staff have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
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