Background: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are a group of neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorders. They are inherited as an autosomal recessive pattern with the exception of adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, which can be inherited in either an autosomal recessive or an autosomal dominant manner. The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigments in the cells and one of the most important pathological manifestations is ceroid accumulation in the lysosomes. Various types of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are categorized based on the clinical manifestations and the genes involved. Accumulatively, 15 different genes have been found so far to be implicated in the pathogenesis of at least nine different types of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, which result in similar pathological and clinical manifestations.
Case presentation: A 5-year-old Iranian boy affected by a neurodegenerative disorder with speech problems, lack of concentration, walking disability at age of 4 years leading to quadriplegia, spontaneous laughing, hidden seizure, clumsiness, psychomotor delay, and vision deterioration at age of 5 years, which could be the consequence of macular dystrophy, was referred to us for genetic testing. Trio whole exome sequencing, Sanger validation, and segregation analysis discovered a novel in-frame small deletion c.325_339del (p.Val109_Ile113del) in MFSD8 gene associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7.
Conclusions: The deletion found in this patient affects the exon 5 of this gene which is the region encoding transmembrane domain. Sequencing analysis in this family has shown that the index is homozygous for 15 base pairs in-frame deletion, his uncle has normal homozygous, and his parents are heterozygous. This pattern of mutation inheritance and the signs and symptoms observed in the affected male of this family are compatible with what is described in the literature for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 and, therefore, suggest that the MFSD8 gene deletion found in this study is most probably the cause of disease in this family.
Keywords: MFSD8 gene; N.eurodegenerative; Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7.