Precision/Personalized Medicine in Allergic Diseases and Asthma

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2018 Dec;66(6):431-442. doi: 10.1007/s00005-018-0526-6. Epub 2018 Sep 24.


Like many other chronic diseases, every allergic patient has different characteristics based on clinical course, treatment responsiveness and disease outcomes, which are associated with the genetic and epigenetic control of molecular mechanisms and environment. This variability necessitates the establishment of patient-tailored and precision approaches in handling allergic disorders. Better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for the development of allergic disorders will provide more rationale strategies based on individual cases in controlling and treating these disorders. Endotyping, phenotyping, genotyping and theratyping, and biomarkers are keywords in this area and have been gaining lots of attention in the field of precision medicine, which aims to revolutionize patient care and develop better prevention and treatment strategies. In addition, precision health is a new concept that brings precise approaches to the scene for being healthy and prevention of allergic disease and asthma. The specialty of allergy has a leading role in the field, because allergen-specific immunotherapy started 105 years ago, and is historically a leading personalized/precision medicine approach in all medicine disciplines providing the possibility of cure in an individualized manner instead of conventional symptomatic treatments.

Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; Biomarker; Cytokines; Endotype; Genotype; Personalized medicine; Phenotype; Precision medicine; Theratype.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / epidemiology
  • Asthma / immunology*
  • Autoantigens / immunology
  • Autoimmunity
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Hypersensitivity / immunology*
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Precision Medicine


  • Autoantigens
  • Biomarkers