Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a life-threatening condition resulting from opioid dependence. Opioids are the group of drugs used for management of severe pain. They are also commonly used as psychoactive substances around the world. Opioids include drugs such as morphine, heroin, oxycontin, codeine, methadone, and hydromorphone hydrochloride. They produce mental relaxation, pain relief, and euphoric feelings. Chronic use of opioids leads to the development of incapacitating form of dependence in users. Opioid dependence not only impacts the drug user, but also imposes a significant economic burden on the society by increasing health care costs, unemployment rates, absenteeism, and premature mortality. Studies in some countries have shown that those consequences can cost on average, 0.2% to 2.0% of a country's gross domestic product.
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- History and Physical
- Treatment / Management
- Differential Diagnosis
- Pertinent Studies and Ongoing Trials
- Postoperative and Rehabilitation Care
- Deterrence and Patient Education
- Pearls and Other Issues
- Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
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