A synthetic glycosaminoglycan reduces sinonasal inflammation in a murine model of chronic rhinosinusitis

PLoS One. 2018 Sep 25;13(9):e0204709. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204709. eCollection 2018.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by sustained mucosal inflammation, impaired mucociliary clearance, loss of cilia and epithelial barrier breakdown, and tissue remodeling. Certain glycosaminoglycans inhibit various inflammatory mediators, suppress bacterial growth, and provide important functions in mucosal tissue repair and mucociliary clearance. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a synthetic glycosaminoglycan, GM-1111, on the clinical signs and inflammatory tissue changes associated with CRS in mice. CRS was generated by repeated intranasal applications of Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) extracts over 4 weeks. Mice were then intranasally administered GM-1111 (600 μg per dose, 5 times a week) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) for an additional 4 weeks while still being given A. fumigatus extracts to maintain a chronic inflammatory environment with acute exacerbations. Clinical signs indicative of sinonasal inflammation were recorded throughout the study. After 9 weeks, whole blood and sinonasal tissues were harvested for hematological, histological, and biochemical examination. The clinical signs, white blood cell counts, tissue markers of sinonasal inflammation, and histological changes caused by A. fumigatus extract administration were compared to the healthy (PBS vehicle) and GM-1111-treated groups (n = 12 per treatment group). Compared to vehicle-treated animals, animals treated with GM-1111 demonstrated significant reductions in clinical signs (p<0.05), degenerative tissue changes, goblet cell hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration (p<0.01), innate immunity- (tlr2, tlr4, myd88, il1b, tnfa, il6, and il12) and adaptive immunity-associated (ccl11, ccl24, ccl5, il4, il5, and il13) cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 to p<0.0001) in sinonasal tissues, and serum IgE levels (p<0.01). Our data suggest that GM-1111 significantly reduces local and systemic effects of CRS-associated sinonasal inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cytokines / analysis
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glycosaminoglycans / chemistry
  • Glycosaminoglycans / therapeutic use*
  • Immunoglobulin E / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin E / immunology
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Nasal Mucosa / drug effects
  • Nasal Mucosa / immunology
  • Nasal Mucosa / pathology
  • Rhinitis / complications
  • Rhinitis / drug therapy*
  • Rhinitis / immunology
  • Rhinitis / pathology
  • Sinusitis / complications
  • Sinusitis / drug therapy*
  • Sinusitis / immunology
  • Sinusitis / pathology


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Immunoglobulin E