Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an economically important vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide. Compared to the wild ancestor bearing small, bitter and seedy fruit, domesticated cucumbers exhibit significant variation in fruit appearance, size and flavor. Understanding the molecular basis of domestication related traits can provide insights into fruit evolution and make crop breeding more efficient. Here we review recent advances in relating to the genetic basis of fruit morphological traits (femaleness, fruit spine, wart, size, color and carpel development) and organoleptic features (bitterness) during cucumber domestication.
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