Volume of urea cleared as a therapy dosing guide for more frequent hemodialysis

Hemodial Int. 2019 Jan;23(1):42-49. doi: 10.1111/hdi.12692. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Abstract

With dialysis delivery systems that operate at low dialysate flow rates, prescriptions for more frequent hemodialysis (HD) employ dialysate volume as the primary parameter for small solute removal rather than blood-side urea dialyzer clearance (K). Such delivery systems, however, yield dialysate concentrations that almost completely saturate with blood (water), suggesting that the volume of urea cleared (the product of K and treatment time or Kt) can be readily estimated from the prescribed dialysate volume to target small solute removal. Methods For more frequent HD, we examined the volume of urea cleared per treatment required to achieve a minimal dose of small solute removal, comparing results based on body surface area (BSA) with those based on KDOQI clinical practice guidelines, that is, a weekly stdKt/V of 2.1. Estimates of the target volume of urea cleared were calculated for 4, 5, and 6 treatments per week, and compared for patients with different anthropometric estimates of total body water volume (Vant ). BSA was assumed proportional to Vant 0.8 , and residual kidney function was neglected. Findings Whether based on BSA or weekly stdKt/V of 2.1, the target volume of urea cleared per treatment required to achieve a minimal dose of small solute removal was lower at higher treatment frequency. As with conventional thrice-weekly HD, target volumes of urea cleared for more frequent HD based on BSA were larger for patients with small Vant and smaller for patients with large Vant than those based on a weekly stdKt/V of 2.1. Discussion Prescription of more frequent HD using the volume of urea cleared per treatment, calculated from the prescribed dialysate volume, is simple in principle and can be readily implemented in clinical practice when using dialysis delivery systems that operate at low dialysate flow rates. Other aspects of dialysis adequacy require additional consideration.

Keywords: Frequent hemodialysis; hemodialysis adequacy; home dialysis; kinetic modeling; volume of urea cleared.

MeSH terms

  • Dialysis Solutions / pharmacology
  • Dialysis Solutions / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renal Dialysis / methods*
  • Urea / urine*

Substances

  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Urea