A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effects of Oral N-Acetyl Cysteine on Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2019;15(3):246-253. doi: 10.2174/1573403X14666180926100811.

Abstract

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory disease of the joints. Due to the importance of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of RA, drugs that have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC), can be used as adjunctive therapy in patients with RA.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral NAC on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in patients with RA.

Methods: Adjunct to standard treatment, the NAC group (23 patients) received 600 mg of NAC twice daily and the placebo group (19 patients) received identical placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. Serum levels of Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO), Total Thiol Groups (TTG), Malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), C-reactive Protein (CRP), and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.

Results: Results showed that in the NAC group, the serum levels of MDA, NO, IL-6, TNF-α, ESR and CRP were significantly lower than the baseline. Also, the serum level of TAC and TTG, as antioxidant parameters, increased significantly. However, only NO, MDA and TTG showed a significant difference in the NAC group as compared to the placebo group at the end of study.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, oral NAC can significantly reduce the several oxidative stress factors and inflammatory cytokines. These results need to be confirmed in larger studies while considering clinical outcomes of RA patients.

Keywords: N-acetylcysteine; antioxidants; inflammatory cytokines; nitrosative stress; oxidative stress; rheumatoid arthritis..

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcysteine / therapeutic use*
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Antirheumatic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / blood
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Pilot Projects

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Antirheumatic Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Acetylcysteine