The aim of this paper was to study gut microbiota composition in patients with different metabolic statuses.
Methods: 92 participants aged 25⁻76 years (26 of whom were men), with confirmed absence of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases (but with the possible presence of cardiovascular risk factors) were included. Carotid ultrasound examinations, 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples and diet assessments were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using R programming language, 3.1.0.
Results: Enterotyping yielded two clusters differentiated by alpha-diversity. Intima-media thickness was higher in the cluster with lower diversity (adj. p < 0.001). Obesity was associated with higher Serratia (adj. p = 0.003) and Prevotella (adj. p < 0.0003) in relative abundance. Abdominal obesity was associated with higher abundance of Serratia (adj. p = 0.004) and Prevotella (adj. p = 0.0008) and lower levels of Oscillospira (adj. p = 0.0005). Glucose metabolism disturbances were associated with higher Blautia (adj. p = 0.0007) and Serratia (adj. p = 0.003) prevalence. Arterial hypertension was associated with high Blautia levels (adj. p = 0.002). The Blautia genus strongly correlated with low resistant starch consumption (adj. p = 0.007). A combination of high-fat diet and elevated Blautia levels was very common for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients (adj. p = 0.0001).
Conclusion: The results show that there is a relationship between metabolic changes and higher representation of opportunistic pathogens and low diversity of gut microbiota even in apparently healthy participants.
Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors; diet; glucose metabolism; gut microbiota; metabolic status.