Esophageal dysmotility: An intrinsic feature of megacystis, microcolon, hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS)

J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Jul;54(7):1303-1307. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.08.051. Epub 2018 Sep 7.


Objectives: Megacystis-microcolon-hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) also called Berdon's Syndrome, is a smooth muscle myopathy that results in an enlarged bladder, microcolon, and small bowel hypoperistalsis. In our series of six patients with this disorder, all had disordered swallowing. Therefore, we prospectively characterized esophageal structure and function in all.

Methods: Diagnoses had been established by contrast radiography, small bowel manometry, and urodynamic studies. To investigate the esophagus, we endoscoped and biopsied the esophagus of each patient on multiple occasions. All patients also underwent water soluble contrast esophagography and esophageal manometry.

Results: Upon careful questioning, all patients had swallowing dysfunction, and the majority of their enteral intake was via gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy. All took some oral alimentation, but eating was slow and none could aliment themselves completely by the oral route, receiving 50% or less of their calories by mouth. Four had megaesophagus whereas the esophagus of the two youngest was of normal caliber. All had eosinophilic esophagitis and/or esophageal Candidiasis from time to time, but successful treatment of these findings failed to improve their symptoms. Manometry revealed normal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting tone and normal LES relaxation, but for all, peristalsis was absent in the esophageal body.

Conclusions: This series expands the spectrum of findings in MMIHS, to include a primary motility disorder of the esophageal body. As patients age, the esophageal caliber appears to increase. Successful treatment of neither esophageal eosinophilia nor Candidiasis is effective in ameliorating the motility disorder. If our findings are confirmed in more patients with MMIHS, this disorder should be renamed, megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-and esophageal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

Type of study: Prognosis study, Level IV (case series).

Keywords: Berdon syndrome; Esophageal dysmotility; Intestinal hypoperistalsis; Intestinal pseudoobstruction; Intestinal transplantation; Megacystis–microcolon–intestinal-hypoperistalsis syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / physiopathology*
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / surgery
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Colon / abnormalities*
  • Colon / physiopathology
  • Colon / surgery
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders / etiology
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Gastrostomy
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / complications
  • Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / physiopathology*
  • Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / surgery
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder / abnormalities*
  • Urinary Bladder / physiopathology
  • Urinary Bladder / surgery

Supplementary concepts

  • Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome