Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been used in murine studies to quantify tumor perfusion and therapeutic response. These studies frequently use inhaled isoflurane anesthesia, which depresses the respiration rate and results in the desaturation of arterial oxygen saturation, potentially affecting tissue physiological parameters. However, there have been no controlled studies quantifying the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on DRS-derived physiological parameters of murine tissue. The goal of this study was to perform DRS on Balb/c mouse (n = 10) tissue under various anesthesia conditions to quantify effects on tissue physiological parameters, including total hemoglobin concentration, tissue oxygen saturation, oxyhemoglobin and reduced scattering coefficient. Two independent variables were manipulated including metabolic gas type (pure oxygen vs. medical air) and isoflurane concentration (1.5 to 4.0%). The 1.5% isoflurane and 1 L/min oxygen condition most closely mimicked a no-anesthesia condition with oxyhemoglobin concentration within 89% ± 19% of control. The time-dependent effects of isoflurane anesthesia were tested, revealing that anesthetic induction with 4.0% isoflurane can affect DRS-derived physiological parameters up to 20 minutes post-induction. Finally, spectroscopy with and without isoflurane anesthesia was compared for colon tumor Balb/c-CT26 allografts (n = 5) as a representative model of subcutaneous murine tumor allografts. Overall, isoflurane anesthesia yielded experimentally-induced depressed oxyhemoglobin, and this depression was both concentration and time dependent. Investigators should understand the dynamic effects of isoflurane on tissue physiological parameters measured by DRS. These results may guide investigators in eliminating, limiting, or managing anesthesia-induced physiological changes in DRS studies in mouse models.
Keywords: (170.2680) Gastrointestinal; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.3890) Medical optics instrumentation; (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics; (170.7050) Turbid media.