Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the impact of white sesame seed oil (WSSO) consumption on fasting blood glucose (GLU), insulin (INS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. A secondary aim was to check the influence on serum biochemistry, hepatic, cardiac, and renal functions.
Methods: Forty-six participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into two equal groups: diabetic control (DCON) and diabetic sesame oil (DSO). At baseline and 30, 60, and 90 days, blood samples were drawn and analyzed. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the difference between groups and across time.
Results: In both groups, GLU, INS, and HbA1c were not significantly different at baseline (mean 187.07 ± 5.63 mg/dl, mean 12.12 ± 1.03 μU/ml, and mean 7.55 ± 0.37%, respectively). At 90 days, GLU was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in DSO (137.83 ± 3.16 mg/dl) when compared with DCON (218.13 ± 5.92 mg/dl), while INS was significantly increased in DSO (23.13 ± 1.15 μU/ml) as compared to DCON (7.93 ± 0.38 μU/ml). At 90 days, HbA1c was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in DSO as compared to DCON. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in DSO (1.08 ± 0.05 [MDA] nmol/ml) as compared to DCON (2.26 ± 0.07 [MDA] nmol/ml). In DSO, activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) increased while in DCON these activities decreased significantly (p < 0.05) across the time period. Biomarkers of liver, cardiac, and renal functions improved significantly in DSO as compared to DCON.
Conclusion: WSSO as a functional food may play an important role in GLU regulation and against deleterious effects of diabetes in humans with type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: TBARS; Type 2 diabetes; insulin; oxidative stress; sesame oil.