Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the association between available patient and clinical characteristics and healthcare utilization in a cohort of breast, lung, and colorectal cancer patients within a safety-net hospital system.
Methods: Data for 979 breast, lung, and colorectal cancer patients admitted to a large, urban hospital for the year 2010 were extracted from the electronic medical record (EMR). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between relevant independent variables that were able to be captured from the EMR in discrete fields, emergency room (ER) utilization, and hospitalizations among members of the cohort. Spearman correlation coefficients to test the correlations between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and opioid prescriptions and healthcare utilization were also calculated.
Results: Of the 979 patients, 22% were 65 years and older, 43% were non-Hispanic black, 42% had Medicare, and 56% had colorectal cancer. Patient and clinical characteristics that were associated with increased ER utilization, included Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio; AOR: 2.21, 95% confidence interval; CI: 1.52-3.21), non-Hispanic black race (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.43-2.82), and referral to palliative care (AOR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.36-3.41). Referral to palliative care (AOR: 3.84, 95% CI: 1.47-10.0), low albumin (AOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.20-4.89), and presence of metastases (AOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.29-3.06) were associated with greater odds of hospitalization. Number of opioids prescribed strongly correlated with number of hospitalizations (ρ correlation = 0.74). Only 10.6% of patients had been referred to outpatient palliative care during the study period.
Conclusions: Some patient and clinical characteristics associated with increased ER visits and hospitalizations in this cohort include race/ethnicity, palliative care referral, markers of advanced disease, and number opioids prescribed. Increasing knowledge of palliative care and access to palliative care among the underserved should be a focus of future research.
Keywords: cancer; healthcare utilization; palliative care; safety net.