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, 22 (4), 643-655

Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency Liver Disease


Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency Liver Disease

Dhiren Patel et al. Clin Liver Dis.


In homozygous ZZ alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, the liver synthesizes large quantities of AAT mutant Z, which folds improperly during biogenesis and is retained within the hepatocytes and directed into intracellular proteolysis pathways. These intracellular polymers trigger an injury cascade, which can lead to liver injury. This is highly variable and not all patients develop liver disease. Although not fully described, there is likely a strong influence of genetic and environmental modifiers of the injury cascade and of the fibrotic response. With improved understanding of liver injury mechanisms, new strategies for treatment are now being explored.

Keywords: Alpha 1 antitrypsin; Autophagy; ERAD; Protein polymer; Proteolysis; siRNA.

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