Hepatitis B and C

Clin Liver Dis. 2018 Nov;22(4):703-722. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2018.06.002. Epub 2018 Aug 22.


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections represent a major global public health and economic burden, with an estimated 257 million and 71 million people, respectively, having chronic infection worldwide. The natural history of HBV and HCV in children depends on age at time of infection, mode of acquisition, ethnicity, and genotype. Most children infected perinatally or vertically remain asymptomatic but are at uniquely higher risk of developing chronic viral hepatitis, progressing to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hence classifying HBV and HCV as oncoviruses. This article discusses the epidemiology, virology, immunobiology, prevention, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and the advances in treatment of hepatitis B and C in children.

Keywords: Children; Hepatitis; Monitoring; Treatment; Viral.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / therapy*
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / transmission
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / virology
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / etiology
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / transmission
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Viral Hepatitis Vaccines*


  • Viral Hepatitis Vaccines