Novel therapeutics against multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae are urgently needed. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide often expresses lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), which becomes sialylated in vivo, enhancing factor H (FH) binding and contributing to the organism's ability to resist killing by complement. We previously showed that FH domains 18-20 (with a D-to-G mutation at position 1119 in domain 19) fused to Fc (FHD1119G/Fc) displayed complement-dependent bactericidal activity in vitro and attenuated gonococcal vaginal colonization of mice. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide phase variation can result in loss of LNnT expression. Loss of sialylated LNnT, although associated with a considerable fitness cost, could decrease efficacy of FHD1119G/Fc. Similar to N. meningitidis, gonococci also bind FH domains 6 and 7 through Neisserial surface protein A (NspA). In this study, we show that a fusion protein comprising FH domains 6 and 7 fused to human IgG1 Fc (FH6,7/Fc) bound to 15 wild-type antimicrobial resistant isolates of N. gonorrhoeae and to each of six lgtA gonococcal deletion mutants. FH6,7/Fc mediated complement-dependent killing of 8 of the 15 wild-type gonococcal isolates and effectively reduced the duration and burden of vaginal colonization of three gonococcal strains tested in wild-type mice, including two strains that resisted complement-dependent killing but on which FH6,7/Fc enhanced C3 deposition. FH/Fc lost efficacy when Fc was mutated to abrogate C1q binding and in C1q-/- mice, highlighting the requirement of the classical pathway for its activity. Targeting gonococci with FH6,7/Fc provides an additional immunotherapeutic approach against multidrug-resistant gonorrhea.
Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.