Homocysteine, Pyridoxine, Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Psychiatr Danub. 2018 Sep;30(3):310-316. doi: 10.24869/psyd.2018.310.


Background: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the serum homocysteine levels, pyridoxine, folate and vitamin B12 levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD).

Subjects and methods: This study included 30 newly diagnosed drug-naive children with ADHD (23 males and 7 female, mean age 9.3±1.8 years) and 30 sex-and age matched healthy controls. The diagnosis of ADHD was made according to DSM-V criteria. Children and adolescents were administered the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Lifetime Version, the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Long Form, the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) for all participants. Homocysteine, pyridoxine, folate and vitamin B12 levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Homocysteine, pyridoxine, folate and vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in children with ADHD compared with their controls (p<0.05). A positive significant correlation was observed between the all WISC-R scores and vitamin B12 level in patients (r=0.408, p=0.025).

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study showed that reduced homocysteine, pyridoxine, folate and vitamin B12 levels could be a risk factor in the etiology of ADHD.

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / blood*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis
  • Behavior Rating Scale
  • Child
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Folic Acid / blood*
  • Folic Acid Deficiency / blood
  • Folic Acid Deficiency / diagnosis
  • Homocysteine / blood*
  • Homocysteine / deficiency
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pyridoxine / blood*
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin B 12 / blood*
  • Vitamin B 12 Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin B 12 Deficiency / diagnosis
  • Vitamin B 6 Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin B 6 Deficiency / diagnosis
  • Wechsler Scales


  • Homocysteine
  • Folic Acid
  • Pyridoxine
  • Vitamin B 12