Gender Reassignment: Feminization and Masculinization of the Neck

Clin Plast Surg. 2018 Oct;45(4):635-645. doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2018.06.006. Epub 2018 Aug 10.


Facial stigmata associated with one's assigned gender can be very distressing for the gender dysphoric patient. The lower face and neck contain several structures that play a significant role in their ability to "pass" as their desired gender. Clinical recognition and modification of these structures will allow the patient to have facial and neck features that are consistent with their desired gender. This article reviews the techniques of mandibular angle contouring, genioplasty, chondrolaryngoplasty, facelift, and neck lift as they pertain to the feminization and masculinization of the face and neck of the patient with gender dysphoria.

Keywords: Chondrolaryngoplasty; Genioplasty; Mandibular angle reduction; Maxillofacial prosthesis; Rhytidectomy; Transgender.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Face / surgery*
  • Female
  • Feminization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandible / surgery
  • Neck / surgery*
  • Rhytidoplasty / methods*
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery