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Review
, 14 (10), 1043-1055

Drug Pharmacomicrobiomics and Toxicomicrobiomics: From Scattered Reports to Systematic Studies of Drug-Microbiome Interactions

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Review

Drug Pharmacomicrobiomics and Toxicomicrobiomics: From Scattered Reports to Systematic Studies of Drug-Microbiome Interactions

Ramy K Aziz et al. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol.

Abstract

Pharmacomicrobiomics and toxicomicrobiomics study how variations within the human microbiome (the combination of human-associated microbial communities and their genomes) affect drug disposition, action, and toxicity. These emerging fields, interconnecting microbiology, bioinformatics, systems pharmacology, and toxicology, complement pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, expanding the scope of precision medicine. Areas covered: This article reviews some of the most recently reported pharmacomicrobiomic and toxicomicrobiomic interactions. Examples include the impact of the human gut microbiota on cardiovascular drugs, natural products, and chemotherapeutic agents, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although the gut microbiota has been the most extensively studied, some key drug-microbiome interactions involve vaginal, intratumoral, and environmental bacteria, and are briefly discussed here. Additionally, computational resources, moving the field from cataloging to predicting interactions, are introduced. Expert opinion: The rapid pace of discovery triggered by the Human Microbiome Project is moving pharmacomicrobiomic research from scattered observations to systematic studies focusing on screening microbiome variants against different drug classes. Better representation of all human populations will improve such studies by avoiding sampling bias, and the integration of multiomic studies with designed experiments will allow establishing causation. In the near future, pharmacomicrobiomic testing is expected to be a key step in screening novel drugs and designing precision therapeutics.

Keywords: Bioinformatics; genomics; metabolomics; metabonomics; microbiome; microbiota; normal flora; systems biology; systems pharmacology; toxicology.

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