Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2018 Oct 1;24:6968-6974.
doi: 10.12659/MSM.912613.

Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes in Azoospermic Men After Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using Testicular Sperm and Donor Sperm

Free PMC article

Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes in Azoospermic Men After Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using Testicular Sperm and Donor Sperm

Yang Yu et al. Med Sci Monit. .
Free PMC article


BACKGROUND The safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with testicular sperm in azoospermic men has been a concern. We evaluated ICSI outcomes, including neonatal outcomes, in children born using testicular sperm or donor sperm. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-nine males with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and 126 males with obstructive azoospermia (OA) were included in this study. Sixty-one patients with NOA used donor sperm for ICSI on the day of oocyte retrieval when no spermatozoa were identified by micro-TESE on the day before oocyte retrieval. ICSI outcomes were compared among OA, donor, and NOA groups. RESULTS There was no statistical difference in terms of female partner characteristics among OA, donor, and NOA groups. The normal fertilization rate (P=0.005), high quality embryo rate (P=0.014), implantation rate (P<0.001), clinical pregnancy rate (P=0.015), live birth rate (P=0.043) were significant lower in the NOA group, compared with the donor sperm group. The normal fertilization rate was significant lower in the NOA group than the OA group (P<0.001), but the live birth rate was not significantly lower (P=0.058). The high-quality embryo rate (P=0.014) and implantation rate (P=0.009) were lower in the OA group than the donor group. No differences between groups were observed in our study regarding neonatal parameters of the infants born. CONCLUSIONS The fertilization and pregnancy outcomes were negatively affected by using testicular sperm from males with NOA. Once a live birth was achieved, there was no difference in neonatal outcomes.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest


Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles


    1. Jarow JP, Espeland MA, Lipshultz LI. Evaluation of the azoospermic patient. J Urol. 1989;142:62–65. - PubMed
    1. Willott GM. Frequency of azoospermia. Forensic Forensic Sci Int. 1982;20:9–10. - PubMed
    1. Palermo G, Joris H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet. 1992;340:17–18. - PubMed
    1. Craft I, Bennett V, Nicholson N. Fertilizing ability of testicular spermatozoa. Lancet. 1993;342:864. - PubMed
    1. Devroey P, Liu J, Nagy Z, et al. Pregnancies after testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in non-obstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:1457–60. - PubMed

Supplementary concepts