Inflammation-Related Mechanisms in Chronic Kidney Disease Prediction, Progression, and Outcome

J Immunol Res. 2018 Sep 6:2018:2180373. doi: 10.1155/2018/2180373. eCollection 2018.


Persistent, low-grade inflammation is now considered a hallmark feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), being involved in the development of all-cause mortality of these patients. Although substantial improvements have been made in clinical care, CKD remains a major public health burden, affecting 10-15% of the population, and its prevalence is constantly growing. Due to its insidious nature, CKD is rarely diagnosed in early stages, and once developed, its progression is unfortunately irreversible. There are many factors that contribute to the setting of the inflammatory status in CKD, including increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and acidosis, chronic and recurrent infections, altered metabolism of adipose tissue, and last but not least, gut microbiota dysbiosis, an underestimated source of microinflammation. In this scenario, a huge step forward was made by the increasing progression of omics approaches, specially designed for identification of biomarkers useful for early diagnostic and follow-up. Recent omics advances could provide novel insights in deciphering the disease pathophysiology; thus, identification of circulating biomarker panels using state-of-the-art proteomic technologies could improve CKD early diagnosis, monitoring, and prognostics. This review aims to summarize the recent knowledge regarding the relationship between inflammation and CKD, highlighting the current proteomic approaches, as well as the inflammasomes and gut microbiota dysbiosis involvement in the setting of CKD, culminating with the troubling bidirectional connection between CKD and renal malignancy, raised on the background of an inflammatory condition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Proteomics
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / immunology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines