Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) refers to a group of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to induce changes in the excitability of cortical neurons in humans. In recent years, studies in animal models have been shown to be essential for disentangling the neuromodulatory effects of tES, defining safety limits, and exploring potential therapeutic applications in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Testing in animal models is valuable for the development of new unconventional protocols intended to improve tES administration and optimize the desired effects by increasing its focality and enabling deep-brain stimulation. Successful and controlled application of tES in humans relies on the knowledge acquired from studies meticulously performed in animal models.
Keywords: animal models; brain stimulation; neuromodulation; plasticity; tACS; tDCS; tRNS; transcranial electrical stimulation.