Background and objectives: To investigate the prolonged effects of a 12-month exercise-plus-diet intervention in Japanese adults at risk of impaired glucose or lipid metabolism.
Methods and study design: A total of 180 participants were randomly divided into an intervention group (n=94), and a control group (n=86). An exercise-plus- diet intervention was conducted on the intervention group for 12 months. The effects were evaluated by questionnaire, physical examinations, and blood tests at baseline, 3 months, 12 months (the end of intervention), and 24 months (one year after the end of intervention). The control group took only the same examinations as the intervention group.
Results: At the end of the 12-month intervention, body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were improved in the intervention group compared to the control group (all p<0.05). One year after the end of the intervention, body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were still decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group (all p<0.05), especially among non-overweight participants. Among overweight persons, only body weight in the intervention group was lower than the control group. The personal behaviours of physical activity and diet in the intervention group were also improved.
Conclusions: The 12-month exercise-plus-diet programs were found to be effective in improving glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as personal behaviour one year after completion of the intervention.