Real-Time Monitoring of Tetraselmis suecica in A Saline Environment as Means of Early Water Pollution Detection

Toxics. 2018 Sep 28;6(4):57. doi: 10.3390/toxics6040057.


Biological water pollution, including organic pollutants and their possible transportation, via biofouling and ballast water, has the potential to cause severe economic and health impacts on society and environment. Current water pollution monitoring methods are limited by transportation of samples to the laboratory for analysis, which could take weeks. There is an urgent need for a water quality monitoring technique that generates real-time data. The study aims to assess the feasibility of three sensing techniques to detect and monitor the concentrations of the model species Tetraselmis suecica in real-time using eleven samples for each method. Results showed UV-Vis spectrophotometer detected increasing concentration of Tetraselmis suecica with R² = 0.9627 and R² = 0.9672, at 450 nm and 650 nm wavelengths, respectively. Secondly, low-frequency capacitance measurements showed a linear relationship with increasing concentration of Tetraselmis suecica at 150 Hz (R² = 0.8463) and 180 Hz (R² = 0.8391). Finally, a planar electromagnetic wave sensor measuring the reflected power S11 amplitude detected increasing cell density at 4 GHz (R² = 0.8019).

Keywords: Tetraselmis suecica; UV-Vis spectroscopy; algae detection; biological water pollution; electromagnetic wave sensors; low-frequency impedance analysis.